Spykman modified Mackinder's formula on the relationship between the Heartland and the Rimland or the inner crescent , claiming that "Who controls the rimland rules Eurasia.
Who rules Eurasia controls the destinies of the world. Another famous follower of Mackinder was Karl Haushofer who called Mackinder's Geographical Pivot of History a "genius' scientific tractate. Following Mackinder he suggested an alliance with the Soviet Union and, advancing a step beyond Mackinder, added Japan to his design of the Eurasian Bloc.
In , at the centenary of The Geographical Pivot of History , famous Historian Paul Kennedy wrote: "Right now with hundreds of thousands of US troops in the Eurasian rimlands and with administration constantly explaining why it has to stay the course, it looks as if Washington is taking seriously Mackinder's injunction to ensure control of the geographical pivot of history.
Friedrich Ratzel — , influenced by thinkers such as Darwin and zoologist Ernst Heinrich Haeckel , contributed to 'Geopolitik' by the expansion on the biological conception of geography, without a static conception of borders. Positing that states are organic and growing, with borders representing only a temporary stop in their movement, he held that the expanse of a state's borders is a reflection of the health of the nation—meaning that static countries are in decline.
Ratzel published several papers, among which was the essay "Lebensraum" concerning biogeography. Ratzel created a foundation for the German variant of geopolitics, geopolitik.
The Geostrategic Triad: Living with China, Europe, and Russia (Significant Issues Series)
Influenced by the American geostrategist Alfred Thayer Mahan , Ratzel wrote of aspirations for German naval reach, agreeing that sea power was self-sustaining, as the profit from trade would pay for the merchant marine, unlike land power. The geopolitical theory of Ratzel has been criticized as being too sweeping, and his interpretation of human history and geography being too simple and mechanistic. Critically, he also underestimated the importance of social organization in the development of power. The key concepts of Haushofer's Geopolitik were Lebensraum, autarky , pan-regions , and organic borders.
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States have, Haushofer argued, an undeniable right to seek natural borders which would guarantee autarky. Haushofer's influence within the Nazi Party has recently been challenged,  given that Haushofer failed to incorporate the Nazis' racial ideology into his work. Popular views of the role of geopolitics in the Nazi Third Reich suggest a fundamental significance on the part of the geo-politicians in the ideological orientation of the Nazi state.
Bassin reveals that these popular views are in important ways misleading and incorrect.
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- Living with China, Europe, and Russia (Csis Significant Issues Series).
Despite the numerous similarities and affinities between the two doctrines, geopolitics was always held suspect by the National Socialist ideologists. This was understandable, for the underlying philosophical orientation of geopolitics did not comply with that of National Socialism.
Geopolitics shared Ratzel's scientific materialism and geographic determinism , and held that human society was determined by external influences—in the face of which qualities held innately by individuals or groups were of reduced or no significance. National Socialism rejected in principle both materialism and determinism and also elevated innate human qualities, in the form of a hypothesized 'racial character,' to the factor of greatest significance in the constitution of human society.
These differences led after to friction and ultimately to open denunciation of geopolitics by Nazi ideologues. The resultant negative association, particularly in U. This has been observed in particular by critics of contemporary academic geography, and proponents of a "neo"-classical geopolitics in particular.
These include Haverluk et al. Negative associations with the term "geopolitics" and its practical application stemming from its association with World War II and pre-World War II German scholars and students of Geopolitics are largely specific to the field of academic Geography , and especially sub-disciplines of Human Geography such as Political Geography.
Zbigniew Kazimierz Brzeziński’s thinking on Taiwan question: his solution and prevention
However, this negative association is not as strong in disciplines such as History or Political Science , which make use of geopolitical concepts. Classical Geopolitics forms an important element of analysis for Military History as well as for subdisciplines of Political Science such as International Relations and Security Studies. This difference in disciplinary perspectives is addressed by Bert Chapman in Geopolitics: A Guide To the Issues , in which Chapman makes note that academic and professional International Relations journals are more amenable to the study and analysis of Geopolitics, and in particular Classical Geopolitics, than contemporary academic journals in the field of Political Geography.
In disciplines outside Geography , Geopolitics is not negatively viewed as it often is among academic geographers such as Carolyn Gallaher or Klaus Dodds as a tool of Imperialism or associated with Nazism , but rather viewed as a valid and consistent manner of assessing major international geopolitical circumstances and events, not necessarily related to armed conflict or military operations. French geopolitical doctrines broadly opposed to German Geopolitik and reject the idea of a fixed geography. French geography is focused on the evolution of polymorphic territories being the result of mankind's actions.
It also relies on the consideration of long time periods through a refusal to take specific events into account. This method has been theorized by Professor Lacoste according to three principles: Representation ; Diachronie ; and Diatopie. In The Spirit of the Laws , Montesquieu outlined the view that man and societies are influenced by climate.
He believed that hotter climates create hot-tempered people and colder climates aloof people, whereas the mild climate of France is ideal for political systems.
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Alike Ratzel, he considers geography through a global vision. However, in complete opposition to Ratzel's vision, Reclus considers geography not to be unchanging; it is supposed to evolve commensurately to the development of human society. His marginal political views resulted in his rejection by academia.
Like Reclus, Ancel rejects German determinist views on geopolitics including Haushofer's doctrines.
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This method was inspired by the French geographer Paul Vidal de la Blache who in turn was influenced by German thought, particularly that of Friedrich Ratzel whom he had met in Germany. Braudel's method was to analyse the interdependence between individuals and their environment. Due to the influence of German Geopolitik on French geopolitics, the latter were for a long time banished from academic works. This book—which is very famous in France—symbolizes the birth of this new school of geopolitics if not so far the first French school of geopolitics as Ancel was very isolated in the s—40s.
Initially linked with communist party evolved to a less liberal approach. While rejecting the generalizations and broad abstractions employed by the German and Anglo-American traditions and the new geographers , this school does focus on spatial dimension of geopolitics affairs on different levels of analysis.
This approach emphazises the importance of multi-level or multi-scales analysis and maps at the opposite of critical geopolitics which avoid such tools. Lacoste proposed that every conflict both local or global can be considered from a perspective grounded in three assumptions:. Michel Foucher is an expert of the African Union for borders affairs.
Thual was a French expert in geopolitics, and a former official of the Ministry of Civil Defence. Thual taught geopolitics of the religions at the French War College, and has written thirty books devoted mainly to geopolitical method and its application to various parts of the world. He is particularly interested in the Orthodox, Shiite, and Buddhist religions, and in troubled regions like the Caucasus.
Connected with F. Thual, Aymeric Chauprade, former professor of geopolitics at the French War College and now member of the extreme-right party "Front national", subscribes to a supposed "new" French school of geopolitics which advocates above all a return to realpolitik and "clash of civilization" Huntington.
The thought of this school is expressed through the French Review of Geopolitics headed by Chauprade and the International Academy of Geopolitics. Chauprade is a supporter of a Europe of nations, he advocates a European Union excluding Turkey, and a policy of compromise with Russia in the frame of a Eurasian alliance which is en vogue among European extreme-right politists and supports the idea of a multipolar world—including a balanced relationship between China and the U.
French philosopher Michel Foucault's dispositif introduced for the purpose of biopolitical research was also adopted in the field of geopolitical thought where it now plays a central role. Aleksandr Dugin , a Russian fascist and nationalist who has developed a close relationship with Russia's Academy of the General Staff wrote " The Foundations of Geopolitics: The Geopolitical Future of Russia " in , which has had a large influence within the Russian military, police, and foreign policy elites.
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The Geostrategic Triad : Living with China, Europe, and Russia
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